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Genomic and Complexity

Information is always manifested associated to matter or energy and also, possibly, emerging in each discipline from a lower complexity level, from physics to chemistry, then to biology and, finally, to psychology.

This linkage is especially relevant in Biology, with Genomics and DNA.

The cosmos manifests itself in staggered and emerging singularities

The cosmos manifests itself step by step, emergent in many cases, in time, space, energy, matter, information and finally in the totalizing organization (1) of these parameters in multiple combinations. This can be recognized in several situations:

  • The case of the cosmological space-time origin: the Big Bang, 14,500 million years ago. There was a great step emerging with a new state. From that moment and from a , the Universe in which we are emerged (without ruling out the existence of other multiverses).
  • At the base of microcosm, in the physics of quantum mechanics, there can be no continuous flows of action like energy-time, but a step-by-step movement, based on a minimum inseparable unit called the <Planck’s quantum>, which corresponds to 6,62 x 10 -34 Joules x Second.
  • In the punctuated equilibrium of biological evolution (2), with moments of acceleration or punctuation (step) and moments of stasis (stability) according to the biologists Gould and Eldredge (1972): “(…) the tendencies that are seen in all the fossil record (…), cannot be attributed to the gradual transformation within a lineage, but must arise from the differential success of certain species”. The benchmark is always the “minimum change” necessary at the level of the most clear and stable stasis. 
  • The constitution of the chemical elements that make up the material world does not manifest itself as continuous quantities. The Periodic Table of Chemical Elements is formed by two basic mass units: protons and electrons, forming atoms in a sequence with ordered regularity. These two bricks, or in this language, “steps” of compact stable mass from which all the material elements come out, have a value, respectively, of 16.700 x 10-28 grams and 9.1 x 10-28 grams.
  • The evaluation of information with a binary base called Bit (0-1). This is a basic unit, and with it the information handled by computers and by the current information and communication technologies (ICTs) is structured, which implies an immense leap from when information was analogically processed, compared to the current “digital form”. The paradigm is the one of , that extends with precision from the previous analogical paradigm, but that does not suppress it.
  • The DNA, the code of life, follows a text format consisting in combinations of four “words”  contained in the format, which is read in groups of 3 words, leading to the digital information of the genetic code of a biological organism.

• Generalizing the organization of the systems, the ontological constitution of any individuation     – physical, chemical, biological, and possibly intelligent with the information– takes place in the transit of the fields in which it is manifested. They are drawn with an abrupt jump, smaller or larger, but mainly that identifies their ontology, of being “one thing”, being based on their or border as an organization.

The following images represent the above explained. The graph of the curve in “S”, with an abrupt jump of growth from a base to a stasis (emergence) or stable configuration, as well as the relationship diagram of Chris Langton, that corresponds with a base level and another one sustained in that stasis:

Being WH an “whole” of a set and P the original “parts”.

Murray Gell-Mann (Nobel Prize in Physics, 1969) expresses it the following way:

“… superficial complexity that arises from a deep simplicity …”, and “In biological evolution, the experience of the past is compressed in the encoded genetic message that is the DNA . And this occurs in that stasis of each species, the double helix, which is structured in its genome.

(1) Laughlin, Robert B. (2005). Un universo diferente. Katz Editores 
(2) Goould, Stephen Jay (2002). La estructura de la teoría de la evolución. Ed. Tusquets-Metatemas
(3) Lewin, Roger (1992). Complejidad. Edit. Tusquets-Metatemas

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